After the Government of the German Reich and the Government of the USSR have, by means of the treaty signed today, definitely settled the problems arising from the disintegration of the Polish state and have thereby created a firm foundation for a lasting peace in Eastern Europe, they mutually express their conviction that it would serve the true interest of all peoples to put an end to the state of war existing at present between Germany on the one side and England and France on the other. Both Governments will, therefore, direct their common efforts, jointly with other friendly powers if the occasion arises, toward attaining this goal as soon as possible.
Should, however, the efforts of the two Governments remain fruitless, this would demonstrate the fact that England and France are responsible for the continuation of the war, whereupon, in case of the continuation of the war, the Governments of Germany and of the USSR shall engage in mutual consultations with regard to necessary measures.
There is no end to corpses of horses. They lie fallen in the middle of the street and there is no one to remove them and clear the road. They have been rotting for three days and nauseating all the passersby. However, because of the starvation rampant in the city, there are many who eat the horses' meat. They cut off chunks and eat them to quiet their hunger. There isn't a store that hasn't been burned or damaged and whose goods were not ruined or stolen. In this transitional period when there is no government authority, pillaging and robbery are committed in broad daylight everywhere, and have increased in those stores which were not emptied by their owners. Warm winter clothes are most often stolen. Storekeepers have been known to invite passersby in off the street to take what they want, since the merchandise would be ruined anyway.
The entire day Soviet soldiers have been passing through the city in the direction of Frampol. The soldiers look quite unpresentable, they are poorly dressed and look poorly fed. The Jews from Szczebrzyshiny greet them enthusiastically, they stand in the street and shout "Long live the Red Army!". They give the soldiers apples, tell their children to welcome the Bolsheviks with open arms. I notice that the soldiers are indifferent to the greetings and joy of the Jews.
Stalin gave in our honor a big banquet to which all members of the Politburo were invited. Rising from our delegation along the huge staircase of the former royal palace, where the reception was held, I, to my surprise, saw a big picture, on which Tsar Alexander II was depicted with his peasants after the abolition of serfdom. Along with other impressions, it seemed to be a sign that the Stalinist Moscow had begun to evolve the thesis of the world revolution in a more conservative direction. The film “Peter the Great”, which was on the Moscow screens then, could also be interpreted in this direction.
So the Germans and Russians have consecrated their Unholy Alliance by a formal partition of Poland, a Gilbertian statement about responsibility for continuing the war, and an impressive but (hopefully) empty declaration about supplying Germany with raw materials.
They make announcements explaining the situation: the truce expires at noon and the Germans are in their right to enter the city. On the first day, they only have the right to go as far as Jerusalem Avenue. The reason for this gradual pace is the demand of the Germans to have the city cleared from mines and, if possible, barricades prior to their arrival. Another factor slowing down the pace of the occupation is the disarmament of Polish troops.
According to the terms of capitulation, all soldiers must surrender their weapons and stay home. Therefore, soldiers have been instructed to arrive at the designated disarmament point and sign all the necessary documents.
The results of Ribbentrop's visit to Moscow are clear. Evidently, we are witnessing German-Soviet rapprochement against the backdrop of the destruction of Poland. German foreign policy is undergoing significant transformations. They want to share their sphere of influence from the Rhine to Eastern Europe with the Soviets. Estonia has given in to Soviet pressure by providing the Bolsheviks with military bases located on its territory.
We receive first through the press, and then from the ambassadors, the texts of the Moscow agreements. They deal with an outright partition of Poland although they contain something which allows us to foresee that on the German side at least there is some intention to do something later on in the way of face-saving. The Duce, however, is rather pessimistic and believes that in view of present conditions it is almost impossible to attempt a peaceful solution. He is right. Besides, it would not be admissible that the head of the Fascist party should support a solution that will put into the hands of the Bolsheviks many millions of Polish Catholics.
A few military cars pass us by, mostly Opels. They are going very slowly as if they don't want to get dirty from the street dust. They look brand new, possibly because the war has only lasted four weeks so far. Moreover, I think the Germans might be driving the best cars to make an impression on people. Officers look proud and confident, they are wearing gloves and steel helmets, and they are barely paying attention to the Poles who are watching them with interest.
Storage at Barbary was robbed this morning. It’s a nightmare.
I helped bury the corpses on the square near Węgierkiewiczowa. On my way home, I saw a refugee carrying things on a wooden horse.
The same Nazi circles which last August said that Britain and France wouldn't fight after the first Nazi-Soviet accord, tonight were sure that the two democracies would agree to stop the war now. They .may be wrong again, though I'm not quite sure.
There seems to be no war at all any more. Nothing is happening in the West. In the East, Modlin and Warsaw have surrendered now too, 600,000 prisoners of war already. In Moscow Ribbentrop and Molotov are negotiating with the Balts and Turks. The tremendous victory pushes all internal dissatisfactions into the background; Germany rules the world—what do a few blemishes matter?
But who is playing this game, and who is outplaying the other? Hitler? Stalin?—I am just reading the first few pages of the Tocqueville, which Frau Schaps gave me in 1924. No one, not even the most significant and knowledgeable contemporaries, anticipated the course of the Revolution. Every page of the book surprises me with analogies to the present. (It is my blackout reading. It’s dark at six, and I cannot write downstairs. Though I shall soon have to get over this I cannot.)
Drove to the Brand Group [78th Inf.Div.] in Lötzen; many colds among the "old gentlemen," morale good. I warned against too close contact with the Russians! No fraternization, contact by officers only.
Impression of the Russians according to available reports: officers mostly reserved, political commissars overbearing, in some cases hostile; enlisted men poor in dress and deportment; equipment mediocre.
Tomorrow I am to go to Berlin with the army commanders to see the Führer.