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Vyacheslav Molotov

Served as Head of the Soviet government until 1939. During the Great Purge he approved 372 documented executions, more than any other Soviet official, including Stalin. In May 1939, he was appointed to succeed Maxim Litvinov as Soviet minister of Foreign affairs.

Vyacheslav Molotov

Served as Head of the Soviet government until 1939. During the Great Purge he approved 372 documented executions, more than any other Soviet official, including Stalin. In May 1939, he was appointed to succeed Maxim Litvinov as Soviet minister of Foreign affairs.

Trust protocol:

The government of the USSR will not prevent German citizens and other people of German origin residing in the areas of his interests if they are willing to move to Germany or to areas of German interests. It agrees that this resettlement will be carried out by representatives of the German Government in agreement with the competent local authorities and that the property rights of the displaced persons will not be affected.

The German Government assumes a corresponding commitment regarding persons of Ukrainian or Belarusian origin living in the areas of its interests.

German-Soviet Treaty of Friendship and the border between the USSR and Germany.

Article I

The government of the USSR and the German government establish as a border between mutual state interests on the territory of the former Polish state, which is plotted on the attached map and will be described in more detail in the additional protocol.

Article II

Both sides recognize the border of mutual state interests established in Article I as final and will eliminate any interference by third powers in this decision. See more

Secret Additional Protocol:

The undersigned Plenipotentiaries at the conclusion of the Soviet-German border treaty and friendship stated their agreement in the following:

Both sides will not allow any Polish agitation in their territories that acts on the territory of another country. They will eliminate the germs of such agitation on their territories and will inform each other about the measures that are expedient for this.

The Soviet Union needs to expand its security system, for which it needs access to the Baltic Sea. If Estonia does not wish to sign an agreement of mutual assistance with us, we will have to resort to other ways to guarantee our security.

Estonia will preserve its independence, its government, parliament, foreign and domestic policy, army, and economic structure.


The Soviet government also cannot be indifferent to the fact that Ukrainians and Belarusians living in Poland, abandoned to their fate, remain defenseless.

In view of this situation, the Soviet government ordered the High Command of the Red Army to order the troops to cross the border and take under their protection the lives and property of the population of Western Ukraine and Western Belarus.


The Polish-German war revealed the internal failure of the Polish state. Within ten days of military operations, Poland lost all its industrial areas and cultural centers. Warsaw, as the capital of Poland, does not exist anymore. The Polish government fell apart and shows no signs of life. This means that the Polish state and its government virtually ceased to exist. Thus, the treaties concluded between the USSR and Poland ceased to operate. Left to itself and left without leadership, Poland has become a convenient field for all sorts of coincidences and surprises that could pose a threat to the USSR. Therefore, being hitherto neutral, the Soviet government can no longer be neutral with these facts.

In 1939, a trade agreement was signed between the USSR and Poland, to which the Soviet side is determined to adhere precisely. With regard to deliveries from the USSR to Poland of military supplies, and also transit through the USSR from other countries, then it is unlikely in the current international situation, when Germany, Poland, Britain and France are already at war, and the Soviet Union does not want to be dragged into that war, not on one side nor the other, and must, in turn, take measures to supply itself with necessary military supplies and in general provide for its own external security. 

We agree that at the right moment we will have to begin taking concrete actions. But we believe that this moment isn’t here yet. It is possible that we are making a mistake, but we believe that hurrying might ruin the situation and make it easier for our enemies to form an alliance. We understand that in the midst the operation, one or both sides might find itself forced to temporarily cross the line of the common interests of both sides, but these incidents cannot interfere with exact execution of the approved plan.


To the health of the Reich Foreign Minister and of the Ambassador, Count von der Schulenburg! And to Stalin, it was he who through his speech of March of this year, which had been well understood in Germany-had introduced the reversal in political relations.


3. With regard to the southeast of Europe from the Soviet side, the USSR’s interest in Bessarabia is emphasized. On the German side, it declares its complete political disinterest in these areas.
4. This protocol will be kept by both parties in strict confidence.


  1. In the event of a territorial-political reorganization of the regions belonging to the Polish state, the border of the spheres of interests of Germany and the USSR will be approximately along the line of the rivers Narew, Vistula and Sana.

The question of whether it is desirable in the mutual interests to preserve the independent Polish state and what the borders of this state will be can be finally clarified only in the course of further political development.

In any case, both governments will resolve this issue in a friendly mutual agreement.


When signing the non-aggression treaty between Germany and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the undersigned ombudsmen of both sides discussed in a strictly confidential manner the question of delimiting areas of mutual interests in Eastern Europe. This discussion led to the following result:

  1. In the event of a territorial-political reorganization of the areas belonging to the Baltic states (Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania), the northern border of Lithuania is at the same time the border of the spheres of interests of Germany and the USSR. At the same time, the interests of Lithuania in relation to the Vilnius region are recognized by both parties.

The Government of the German Reich and The Government of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, desirous of strengthening the cause of peace between Germany and the U.S.S.R., and proceeding from the fundamental provisions of the Neutrality Agreement concluded in April 1926 between Germany and the U.S.S.R., have reached the following Agreement:

Article I

Both High Contracting Parties obligate themselves to desist from any act of violence, any aggressive action, and any attack on each other, either individually or jointly with other Powers. See more

The question of a non-aggression pact is clear and simple. According to the German government, it should consist of the following two points: 

1) The German government and the Soviet government agree not to, under any circumstances, enter into a war or use force of any kind; 

2) This agreement will take effect very soon and will be in effect without denunciation for 25 years. 

If, however, the German government is now turning away from the old politics towards a serious improvement in political relations with the USSR, then the Soviet government can only welcome such a shift and is prepared, from its side, to reconstruct its politics in the spirit of a serious improvement of relations with Germany.  See more