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Remigiusz Moszynski

Graduated from the University of Poznań. From 1924, he'd been working as a judge in many cities and towns in the Lublin province. In 1938, he received a nomination as judge at the Court of Appeal in Lublin.

Remigiusz Moszynski

Graduated from the University of Poznań. From 1924, he'd been working as a judge in many cities and towns in the Lublin province. In 1938, he received a nomination as judge at the Court of Appeal in Lublin.

The Soviets are to occupy the Polish territories up to the Vistula, Narew, and San. Some are afraid and I want to run away with the Germans, but we stay. In our court, a cooperative is being established for all employees of courts, lawyers, notaries (on a democratic basis). We can already walk the streets for two hours longer, until 6 pm, and have the lights turned on in homes. Many Polish prisoners of war pass through Lublin, stretching in an unbroken line under German escort. A sad sight. Crowds on the streets. Soldiers rant at the government for having let this defeat happen, at the officers and at the staring crowd. The siege of Warsaw. Bombings...

Order for all military personnel to report to the headquarters. Explanation follows that this only applies to the conscripts... The city looks empty, the army left... As if it's the end...

We undress for the first time since the beginning of the war and sleep. The end of the battle of Kutno. Remnants of our troops were taken captive. Combat near Modlin and Warsaw. Germany mans the areas in the demarcation line established in agreement with Soviet Russia. The battle of Gdynia ended with the war port occupied...

The Old Town was burning at night. Cannons rumbled, then went quiet. Silently, we took our things and went home. We already knew that Lublin had fallen - in the morning the Germans entered Lublin. They robbed shops and searched some houses. They didn't search ours. They took several thousand hostages, whomever they could, and they keep them near the barracks behind wires. They also took Stefek and Tadzio.

German communication: campaign in Poland is coming to an end, most of Poland is occupied, Germany has reached the Lviv – Włodzimierz – Brest – Białystok line.

11:30

We were struck by the news that our government fled to Romania and that the Soviets, after reaching an agreement with Germany, were occupying the eastern borderlands. The Moscow radio broadcast that Polish planes fired at Soviet territory and the armed officers crossed the border to protect the Ukrainian and Belarusian populations. They were taken under protection along with the conquered areas once occupied by Poland after the Riga Treaty.

From Kalina's diary: they go to the hospital before dinner. Today in the morning someone yelled in the hospital yard that English planes were flying. Everyone went out into the yard, and the planes dropped two bombs. Fortunately, they didn't explode. Next to the hospital, however, several bombs exploded and the wardrobes fell, and the paintings and windows broke. The sick wailed terribly. The wounded were being brought in, nurses were losing their heads. Patients hid under the beds. They are constantly bringing the sick and wounded to the hospital. Among them, there were several soldiers who were shot with bullets from planes while lying on the ground. Bullets passed through their lungs. They are also bringing in the wounded from underneath the debris.

We have some rain for the first time after a few weeks of drought. Naive people thought it would stop the invasion of German tanks. German troops have crossed the Lwow - Lublin road, they occupied Brest on the Bug and have gotten increasingly closer to encircling Warsaw. 

The Germans cross the Vistula near Sandomierz. The battle of Kutno continues. Germans surround Warsaw from the east and begin encircling from the north-west. They conquer Osowiec - a border fortress and bomb Warsaw and the retreating Polish troops. Radio Warsaw I and "Raszyn" fell silent. We have no news.

We feel that things are bad on the front line. However, today’s "Express Lubelski" and "Express Volynski" report otherwise: that half of the Germans have stopped over a range of distance, that the fighting was unsuccessful for the Germans, that the offensive on the San was defeated. In Kutno, Germany lost the battle. Our army is intact and is waiting for a decisive pushback... Germany is also broadcasting false Polish dispatches. German prisoners say their tanks are demolished and have no gas.

The Germans say they crossed the river San, that they went around Chyrów through Przemyśl, that Polish troops are laying down their arms. There is a great battle between the German motorised troops and the Polish cavalry taking place near Kutno. Germans are bombing Warsaw and occupy part of the Hel peninsula.

After dinner, I went to the court. Despite the bombs, people were walking aimlessly around the city. I was lucky because they were paying three-month evacuation salaries. The court is being moved to Łódź. The president of the Appeals of the Prosecutor's Office is going, and by order of the authorities the rest is staying and destroying some files and papers in the furnaces. We have been sitting in ditches all day since the last bombing. I barely come out – a raid begins. We spent two nights in a ditch (not only us), sitting on briefcases and suitcases, under coats and an old sheepskin coat. It was terribly uncomfortable and cold.

During the alarm, we stand by the gate. We can hear banging. The door opens and closes with a crash. The hallway is cramped. Everyone is calling: something to drink! There are shouts, screams. Suddenly, a woman comes in, shouting: gas! Some military officer and Kalina put on masks, and the rest of us put on pads made of gauze and soaked in a solution of baking soda with water, held at the back of the head with an elastic band or a ribbon. We went upstairs because the higher you go, the weaker the gas. Apparently the gas can’t fully reach the fourth floor. Bomb explosions can be seen through the window. It turned out it was not gas, only smoke from the bomb explosion.

Kalina has been working in the hospital since the beginning of the war, although she is only 13 years old, still a child. She rides her bicycle around town between the cars and distributes what the scouts give. More and more fleeing people on the roads.

 

The Germans report that the entire Polish front is retreating, that they took Nowy Sącz, Kraków and Kielce, that in Pomerania they destroyed our 9th and 27th divisions as well as the Pomeranian Cavalry Brigade. An announcement by our 6th division stated that our home front is being bombarded and that we destroyed 15 German planes today and 20 yesterday. There are battles in Łódź, Piotrków Trybunalski, Tomaszów Mazowiecki, Tarnów and Różan.

Apparently Marshal Rydz-Śmigły and the government were in Lublin. In any case, the Minister of Justice (Witold Grabowski) visited us at the court and, as they say, he was terribly afraid of raids. The radio broadcast an order that all military-age men leave the capital. It's not good. They also talk about evacuation. And there are growing waves of refugees – all to the East, beyond the Bug. It's supposed to be safe over there. We will defend ourselves there. Meanwhile, the Germans dominate the Beskids near Nowy Sącz. Kraków is abandoned. Ciechanów is being defeated.

I go to court every day as the sessions take place as normal. Yet everyone feels uneasy when a plane flies by and there is an alarm. More and more people are fleeing. Our whole street is stacked with cars: long lines on both sides. Mary and I take turns in taking over the watch in our flat. Nights pass quietly though. Strange, you can’t see the army, they don’t enroll volunteers.