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Remigiusz Moszynski

Graduated from the University of Poznań. From 1924, he'd been working as a judge in many cities and towns in the Lublin province. In 1938, he received a nomination as judge at the Court of Appeal in Lublin.

Remigiusz Moszynski

Graduated from the University of Poznań. From 1924, he'd been working as a judge in many cities and towns in the Lublin province. In 1938, he received a nomination as judge at the Court of Appeal in Lublin.

September was marked by the war with Germany and its unexpected outcome that stunned and surprised us. Poland was conquered, divided... There were constant air raids, Lublin has been taken... The first orders of the invaders... Evacuation to the East and going home... We met only with Milek, Maria, and Lyusik. We don't know anything about mom and Brom...

Bolsheviks go to Lublin. Looking forward to the curiosity that it will be. Reportedly, they made an agreement with Germany, changed the border with the Soviets, which will go up the Narev, Nozer, Bug river to Kristinopol, not far from the Russian Rava, along San to its mouth. Besides Warsaw, Modlin also protects himself. However, Warsaw declares its readiness to surrender.

Soviet troops have occupied areas beyond the Bug and San. German troops are retreating. However, rumor has it that the line of occupation will run along the border of the Kingdom of Poland. 

The Soviet delegation arrived. Crowds of people were watching their tanks and cars. The Germans broke up the crowd. People in Lublin said that these delegates bought various goods, especially watches, and paid rather well.

Huge, almost kilometre-long queues gather in front of the German police headquarters from the crack of dawn, as soon as the curfew ends, waiting for their passes to go home.

In the city, there is an announcement written in some badly-written language that the area to the east of the Bug and San is already occupied and that “the return on the Vistula is forbidden.”

Heavy bombardment of Warsaw from the air and the Germans announce that they will destroy the capital. Nevertheless, we are determined to fight in defence of the honour of Poland.

The Soviets are to occupy the Polish territories up to the Vistula, Narew, and San. Some are afraid and I want to run away with the Germans, but we stay. In our court, a cooperative is being established for all employees of courts, lawyers, notaries (on a democratic basis). We can already walk the streets for two hours longer, until 6 pm, and have the lights turned on in homes. Many Polish prisoners of war pass through Lublin, stretching in an unbroken line under German escort. A sad sight. Crowds on the streets. Soldiers rant at the government for having let this defeat happen, at the officers and at the staring crowd. The siege of Warsaw. Bombings...

Order for all military personnel to report to the headquarters. Explanation follows that this only applies to the conscripts... The city looks empty, the army left... As if it's the end...

We undress for the first time since the beginning of the war and sleep. The end of the battle of Kutno. Remnants of our troops were taken captive. Combat near Modlin and Warsaw. Germany mans the areas in the demarcation line established in agreement with Soviet Russia. The battle of Gdynia ended with the war port occupied...

The Old Town was burning at night. Cannons rumbled, then went quiet. Silently, we took our things and went home. We already knew that Lublin had fallen - in the morning the Germans entered Lublin. They robbed shops and searched some houses. They didn't search ours. They took several thousand hostages, whomever they could, and they keep them near the barracks behind wires. They also took Stefek and Tadzio.

German communication: campaign in Poland is coming to an end, most of Poland is occupied, Germany has reached the Lviv – Włodzimierz – Brest – Białystok line.


We were struck by the news that our government fled to Romania and that the Soviets, after reaching an agreement with Germany, were occupying the eastern borderlands. The Moscow radio broadcast that Polish planes fired at Soviet territory and the armed officers crossed the border to protect the Ukrainian and Belarusian populations. They were taken under protection along with the conquered areas once occupied by Poland after the Riga Treaty.

From Kalina's diary: they go to the hospital before dinner. Today in the morning someone yelled in the hospital yard that English planes were flying. Everyone went out into the yard, and the planes dropped two bombs. Fortunately, they didn't explode. Next to the hospital, however, several bombs exploded and the wardrobes fell, and the paintings and windows broke. The sick wailed terribly. The wounded were being brought in, nurses were losing their heads. Patients hid under the beds. They are constantly bringing the sick and wounded to the hospital. Among them, there were several soldiers who were shot with bullets from planes while lying on the ground. Bullets passed through their lungs. They are also bringing in the wounded from underneath the debris.

We have some rain for the first time after a few weeks of drought. Naive people thought it would stop the invasion of German tanks. German troops have crossed the Lwow - Lublin road, they occupied Brest on the Bug and have gotten increasingly closer to encircling Warsaw. 

The Germans cross the Vistula near Sandomierz. The battle of Kutno continues. Germans surround Warsaw from the east and begin encircling from the north-west. They conquer Osowiec - a border fortress and bomb Warsaw and the retreating Polish troops. Radio Warsaw I and "Raszyn" fell silent. We have no news.

We feel that things are bad on the front line. However, today’s "Express Lubelski" and "Express Volynski" report otherwise: that half of the Germans have stopped over a range of distance, that the fighting was unsuccessful for the Germans, that the offensive on the San was defeated. In Kutno, Germany lost the battle. Our army is intact and is waiting for a decisive pushback... Germany is also broadcasting false Polish dispatches. German prisoners say their tanks are demolished and have no gas.

The Germans say they crossed the river San, that they went around Chyrów through Przemyśl, that Polish troops are laying down their arms. There is a great battle between the German motorised troops and the Polish cavalry taking place near Kutno. Germans are bombing Warsaw and occupy part of the Hel peninsula.

After dinner, I went to the court. Despite the bombs, people were walking aimlessly around the city. I was lucky because they were paying three-month evacuation salaries. The court is being moved to Łódź. The president of the Appeals of the Prosecutor's Office is going, and by order of the authorities the rest is staying and destroying some files and papers in the furnaces. We have been sitting in ditches all day since the last bombing. I barely come out – a raid begins. We spent two nights in a ditch (not only us), sitting on briefcases and suitcases, under coats and an old sheepskin coat. It was terribly uncomfortable and cold.

During the alarm, we stand by the gate. We can hear banging. The door opens and closes with a crash. The hallway is cramped. Everyone is calling: something to drink! There are shouts, screams. Suddenly, a woman comes in, shouting: gas! Some military officer and Kalina put on masks, and the rest of us put on pads made of gauze and soaked in a solution of baking soda with water, held at the back of the head with an elastic band or a ribbon. We went upstairs because the higher you go, the weaker the gas. Apparently the gas can’t fully reach the fourth floor. Bomb explosions can be seen through the window. It turned out it was not gas, only smoke from the bomb explosion.